The rise and fall of the Gopher protocol

When I first encountered what we now call the Internet, it was called NSFnet and was run by the National Science Foundation (although references to the ARPAnet still abounded). Finding information or any kind of file was difficult at best unless you already knew where it was stored. My grad school was connected, as were most universities, but we didn’t have DNS set up so you actually had to use IP numbers to specify hosts to connect to. It was the opposite of user-friendly.

By 1992 the governing committee of the Internet realized it needed a better way to connect this growing network to its users. Among the contenders was the Gopher protocol that was created by programmers at the University of Minnesota.

Gopher did very, very well for a while, greatly exceeding Tim Berners-Lee’s World Wide Web, one of the others proposed. Then the University decided to charge users to use Gopher. The rest is, as they say, history.

HyperCard is 25 years old(!)

If you had a Mac in the late 80s/early 90s you probably remember HyperCard, the interactive hypertext application that spawned a seemingly infinite number of stacks on just about everything. What you may not realized is that HyperCard also inspired the WWW and the early browsers.

As I mentioned before in a post about a new no-code web authoring tool, Apple already had one that they just let die. HyperCard was far more powerful than many people realized (just look at the tools built with in the sidebar on the Ars Technica article) and I believe there’s a real need for such tools today. Had Apple continued development on it, HyperCard could easily have been that tool.